Standard 1: DESIGN
Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions for learning
by applying principles of instructional systems design, message design, instructional strategies,
and learner characteristics.
1.1 Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
Within the application of this definition, ‘design’ is interpreted at both a macro- and micro-level in
that it describes the systems approach and is a step within the systems approach. The
importance of process, as opposed to product, is emphasized in ISD.
- 1.1.1 Analyzing: process of defining what is to be learned and the context in which it is
- to be learned.
- 1.1.2 Designing: process of specifying how it is to be learned.
- 1.1.3 Developing: process of authoring and producing the instructional materials.
- 1.1.4 Implementing: actually using the materials and strategies in context.
1.2 Message Design
Message design is embedded within learning theories (cognitive, psychomotor, behavioral,
perceptual, affective, constructivist) in the application of known principles of attention, perception,
and retention which are intended to communicate with the learner. This sub-domain
is specific to both the medium selected and the learning task.
1.3 Instructional Strategies
In practice, instructional strategies interact with learning situations. The results of these
interactions are often described by instructional models. The appropriate selection of instructional
strategies and instructional models depends upon the learning situation (including learner
characteristics), the nature of the content, and the type of learner objective.
1.4 Learner Characteristics
Learner characteristics impact specific components of instruction during the selection and
implementation of instructional strategies. For example, motivation research influences the
selection and implementation of instructional strategies based upon identified learner
characteristics. Learner characteristics interact with instructional strategies, the learning situation,
and the nature of the content.
Standard 2: DEVELOPMENT
Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials
and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.
2.1 Print Technologies
Print technologies include verbal text materials and visual materials; namely, text, graphic and
photographic representation and reproduction. Print and visual materials provide a foundation for
the development and utilization of the majority of other instructional materials.
2.2 Audiovisual Technologies
Audiovisual technologies are generally linear in nature, represent real and abstract ideas, and
allow for learner interactivity dependent on teacher application.
2.3 Computer-Based Technologies
Computer-based technologies represent electronically stored information in the form of digital
data. Examples include computer-based instruction(CBI), computer-assisted instruction (CAI),
computer-managed instruction (CMI), telecommunications, electronic communications, and global
2.4 Integrated Technologies
Integrated technologies are typically hypermedia environments which allow for: (a) various levels
of learner control, (b) high levels of interactivity, and (c) the creation of integrated audio, video,
and graphic environments. Examples include hypermedia authoring and telecommunications
tools such as electronic mail and the World Wide Web.
Standard 3: UTILIZATION
Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources
for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and
3.1 Media Utilization
Utilization is the decision-making process of implementation based on instructional design
3.2 Diffusion of Innovations
With an ultimate goal of bringing about change, the process includes stages such as awareness,
interest, trial, and adoption.